SQL Training

Table of Content

Introduction
• Relational and Object Relational Database Management System
• Relational Database Concept
• Definition of a Relational Database
• Entity Relationship Model
• Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions
• Relational Database Terminology
• Relational Database Properties
• Communicating with a RDBMS Using SQL
• SQL Statements

Writing Basic SQL SELECT Statements
• Capabilities of SQL SELECT Statements
• Basic SELECT Statement
• Selecting All Columns
• Selecting Specific Columns
• Writing SQL Statements
• Column Heading Defaults
• Arithmetic Expressions
• Using Arithmetic Operators
• Operator Precedence
• Using Parentheses
• Defining a Null Value
• Null Values in Arithmetic Expressions
• Defining a Column Alias
• Duplicate rows
• Displaying Table Structure

Restricting and Sorting Data
• Limiting Rows Using a Selection
• Using the WHERE Clause
• Comparison Conditions
• Using the BETWEEN Condition
• Using the IN Condition
• Using the LIKE Condition
• Using the NULL Conditions
• Logical Conditions
• Using the AND Operator
• Using the OR Operator
• Using the NOT Operator
• Rules of Precedence
• ORDER BY Clause
• Sorting in Descending Order
• Sorting by Multiple Columns

Single-Row Functions
• SQL Functions
• Two Types of SQL Functions
• Single-Row Functions
• Character Functions
• Case Manipulation Functions
• Character-Manipulation Functions
• Number Functions
• Using the ROUND Function
• Using the TRUNC Function
• Using the MOD Function
• Working with Dates
• Arithmetic Operators with Dates
• Date Functions
• General Functions
• NVL Function
• Using the NVL2 Function
• Using the COALESCE Function
• The CASE Expression
• Using the CASE Expression
• The DECODE Function

Aggregating Data Using Group Functions
• What Are Group Functions?
• Types of Group Functions
• Group Functions Syntax
• Using the AVG and SUM Functions
• Using the MIN and MAX Functions
• Using the COUNT Function
• Using the DISTINCT Keyword
• Group Functions and Null Values
• Using the NVL Function with Group Functions
• Creating Groups of Data: The GROUP BY Clause Syntax
• Using the GROUP BY Clause on Multiple Columns
• Excluding Group Results: The HAVING Clause
• Nesting Group Functions

Displaying Data from Multiple Tables (Joins)
• Obtaining Data from Multiple Tables
• Cartesian Products
• Generating a Cartesian Product
• Types of Joins
• Joining Tables Using Oracle Syntax
• What is Equi Join?
• Retrieving Records with Equijoins
• Additional Search Conditions Using the AND Operator
• Qualifying Ambiguous Column Names
• Using Table Aliases
• Joining More than Two Tables
• Non-Equijoins
• Retrieving Records with Non-Equijoins
• Outer Joins
• Outer Joins Syntax
• Using Outer Joins
• Self Joins
• Creating Joins with the USING Clause
• Retrieving Records with the USING Clause
• Creating Joins with the ON Clause
• Retrieving Records with the ON Clause
• INNER Vs OUTER JOIN

Subqueries
• Using a Subquery to Solve a Problem
• Subquery Syntax
• Guidelines for Using Subqueries
• Types of Subqueries
• Single-Row Subqueries
• Executing Single-Row Subqueries
• Using Group Functions in a Subquery
• Multiple-Row Subqueries
• Using the ANY Operator in Multiple-Row Subqueries
• Using the ALL Operator in Multiple-Row Subqueries
• Null Values in a Subquery

Manipulating Data
• Data Manipulation Language
• Adding a New Row to a Table
• The INSERT Statement Syntax
• Inserting New Rows
• Inserting Rows with Null Values
• Copying Rows from another Table
• Changing Data in a Table
• The UPDATE Statement Syntax
• Updating Rows in a Table
• Updating Two Columns with a Subquery
• DELETE statement
• Deleting Rows from a Table
• Deleting Rows Based on another Table
• Using a Subquery in an INSERT Statement
• The MERGE Statement
• The MERGE Statement Syntax
• Database Transactions
• Advantages of COMMIT and ROLLBACK Statements
• Controlling Transactions
• Rolling Back Changes
• Implicit Transaction Processing
• State of the Data before COMMIT or ROLLBACK
• State of the Data after COMMIT
• Committing Data
• State of the Data after ROLLBACK
• Locking
• Implicit Locking

Creating and Managing Tables
• Database Objects
• Naming Rules
• The CREATE TABLE Statement
• Referencing another User's Tables
• The DEFAULT Option
• Creating Tables
• Tables in the Oracle Database
• Querying the Data Dictionary
• Creating a Table by Using a Subquery
• The ALTER TABLE Statement
• Adding a Column
• Modifying a Column
• Dropping a Column
• The SET UNUSED Option
• Dropping a Table
• Changing the Name of an Object
• Truncating a Table

Oracle Date Time Functions
• TIMESTAMP Data Type
• TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Data Type
• TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME Data Type

Pseudo columns
• What is Pseudocolumns ?
• Rownum
• Rownum in camparison

Including Constraints
• Objectives
• What are Constraints?
• Constraint Guidelines
• Defining Constraints
• The NOT NULL Constraint
• The UNIQUE Constraint
• The PRIMARY KEY Constraint
• The FOREIGN KEY Constraint
• FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords
• The CHECK Constraint
• Adding a Constraint Syntax
• Dropping a Constraint
• Disabling Constraints
• Enabling Constraints
• Viewing Constraints

Sequence
• What is a Sequence?
• The CREATE SEQUENCE Statement Syntax
• Creating a Sequence
• Confirming Sequences
• NEXTVAL and CURRVAL Pseudocolumns
• Using a Sequence
• Modifying a Sequence
• Guidelines for Modifying a Sequence
• Removing a Sequence

Creating Views
• Database Objects
• What is a View?
• Why to use Views?
• Simple Views and Complex Views
• Creating a View
• Retrieving Data from a View
• Querying a View
• Modifying a View
• Creating a Complex View
• Rules for Performing DML Operations on a View
• Using the WITH CHECK OPTION Clause
• Denying DML Operations (With read only Option)
• Removing a View
• Inline Views

Index
• What is an Index?
• How Are Indexes Created?
• Creating an Index
• When to Create an Index
• When Not to Create an Index
• Confirming Indexes
• Removing an Index

Controlling User Access
• Objectives
• Controlling User Access
• Privileges
• System Privileges
• Creating Users
• User System Privileges
• Granting System Privileges
• What is a Role?
• Creating and Granting Privileges to a Role
• Changing Your Password
• Object Privileges
• Granting Object Privileges
• Using the WITH GRANT OPTION and PUBLIC Keywords
• How to Revoke Object Privileges
• Revoking Object Privileges

Synonyms
• What is Synonyms?
• How Are Synonyms Created?
• Removing Synonyms

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